Revised Essay on Understanding the Anglican Patrimony. Part III: Patristic/Monastic Spirituality and the English Reformation

Revised Essay on Understanding the Anglican Patrimony. Part III: Patristic/Monastic Spirituality and the English Reformation

[Links to parts of this essay: Part I (The Monastic Charism); Part II (England’s Monastic Roots); Part III (Patristic/Monastic Spirituality and the English Reformation); Part IV (Patristic/Monastic Spirituality and the Caroline Divines). Yet to be published: Part V and Part VI]

[The images is a drawing of Croydon Palace, which was the summer residence of Archbishops of Canterbury for centuries, including the years when Thomas Cranmer was the archbishop of Canterbury.]

Foreword

The first part of this essay examines some of what makes the monastic charism unique in contrast to other charisms of consecrated religious life.  This is important in understanding the Anglican patrimony because the monastic charism had a profound influence on the development of Christianity in England and thus on English spirituality.  The first part of the essay also presents historical data to show how pervasive monasticism was in England up to the English Reformation.

This part of the essay looks at how patristic/monastic spirituality influenced theology in England at the time of the English Reformation.

One of the salient points in this section is that patristic/monastic spirituality is, as Philip Sheldrake writes, perceiving God as revealed in Christ and “as expressed in the Bible and the liturgy as well as in personal Christian living.”  It is not about exhaustive, monumental systems, expectations of dark nights of the soul, or methodical approaches to prayer.  It is a matter of simply getting on with lectio divina, prayer, and work.  It is this unity of scriptural-liturgical life lived in the day-to-day that is the ideal of the Prayer Book.  Moreover, this basically monastic spirituality maintained in England even as English monasteries were being dissolved.  As the historical facts show, the Dissolution of the monasteries shows that England got rid of monks and nuns (and other religious) while its view of monasticism itself is not nearly as straightforward.

The third installment of this essay will look to the next historical period in Anglicanism, which is the era of the Caroline Divines.  Especially after Oliver Cromwell’s Commonwealth, Anglican theologians focused more intently on articulating an Anglican theological perspective.  But as this installment in the series shows, some of those elements were already strongly present in the Church of England.

Patristic/Monastic Qualities of the Anglican Patrimony and Implications for Anglicanorum coetibus

Part II

Br. John-Bede Pauley, O.S.B.

March 2019

Monasticism and Patristics in the Era of the English Reformation.

Scholars such as Eamon Duffy[1] have shown that well into the English Reformation, many in England—and at all levels of society—continued to value Catholic belief and practice.  This was even the case when people encountered “the injustices of tithe and the defectiveness of the ministrations of unworthy priests.”[2]  Eventually, this changed so that England, as a whole, came to accept the Reformation.  But why, where, and how it was accepted is a complex question on which “the jury is still out.”[3]

Duffy’s focus was on Catholicism in general, however, not Catholicism as influenced by the religious orders or by monasticism in particular.[4]  This essay explores specifically monastic characteristics of this Catholic culture and the fact that these characteristics made their way into the Prayer Book and the Anglican tradition.  Its scope precludes an exploration on the scale of Duffy’s The Stripping of the Altars.  If suchresearch exists, it has yet to be published.  But there is sufficient evidence to show that, as paradoxical as it appears, Henry VIII’s Dissolution[5] of the monasteries in England did not prevent characteristics of patristic/monastic spirituality and theology from influencing the development of post-Reformation English spirituality.

Monastic spirituality continued to influence England in the sixteenth century in part because England remained “overwhelmingly agrarian.”[6]  In addition to monasticism’s preference for the rural, “conservatism reigned supreme”[7] in the countryside, and since nearly every diocese had had at least one Benedictine monastery since the beginning of the eleventh century,[8] monasticism was part of English identity.

Even for those who lived in London, the only city of significant size in England,[9] retreat to the countryside was an ideal then as it has been in other periods of English history.[10]  In the early sixteenth century this ideal would naturally have been associated with monasticism, which was the case with St. Thomas More, one of the most influential intellectuals of the time.[11]  For More, this ideal of the ἐρῆμος that fosters attentive listening and lectio divina was about enjoying time and solitude not only to read Scripture but also the Fathers and works of the new humanistic perspective.  Indeed, More, who brought the new “humanistic perspective into the very heart of the government and the church,” systematically applied humanism to the Fathers[12] and did so very much in the same spirit of retiring to one’s monastic cell to pray and study.  At the same time, however, this ideal of a spiritual and intellectual retreat from the world—even if it was wrested in occasional moments from busy schedules in a busy city such as London—paradoxically kept patristic scholarship at the center of the latest intellectual developments.  

More’s method of applying “massive patristic learning” to the blending of humanism with scholasticism also characterizes the theological labors of John Fisher, another redoubtable intellectual, and of none other than Thomas Cranmer, the archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VIII and Edward VI.[13]  Though Cranmer used the “old learning” of the Fathers selectively, even opportunistically, he knew the writings of the Fathers well and was firm in his claim that Christianity must be “deeply beholden to the Fathers as authorities” and that fidelity to the Bible also meant fidelity to the ancient church.[14]

An aspect of Cranmer’s selective reading of the Fathers was his denial of anything concerning papal primacy.  But Cranmer had a high regard for the authority of the early Ecumenical Councils.  Conciliarism was the “one [theological] constant” throughout Cranmer’s life.[15]  He invited continental reformers to join him in holding a General Council in England.  But this initiative came to naught because of the at-best-lukewarm response of the continental reformers.[16]  It was Cranmer’s and Anglicanism’s respect for the patristic era that distinguished them from the continental reformers.  Though Cranmer read the Fathers and pushed for reforms with a Protestant “evangelical twist,”[17] he often stated his reforms in terms that appealed to the past[18] rather than as radical expressions of the “New Learning.”[19]

It is tempting to explore Cranmer’s theology in greater depth.  Since Cranmer was archbishop of Canterbury during the Dissolution and was the primary editor of the first Book of Common Prayer[20] under Edward VI, we naturally assume he would have clearly expressed his views on monasticism.  This expectation is all the more enticing since the “overall character” of the Prayer Book Cranmer edited has shaped “Anglican devotion to the present day.”[21]  Locate the attitude to monasticism in the Prayer Book editor’s mind, one would assumed, and we can locate the place of monasticism in this immensely influential text.

This expectation has to be disappointed.  Cranmer “was frequently confused and … confused others.”[22]  Theological clarity and consistency are all too rare in what he has left us.  As for the Dissolution itself, it was very “complex and nuanced.”[23]  Moreover, Cromwell was more personally involved in the project than Cranmer.[24]  And as the servant of an absolute monarch, Cranmer had to be wary about expressing his own views too openly.  Henry VIII was much more interested in the Dissolution as a money-making scheme than as a theological reform.  The nationalization of religious foundations did not convince Henry VIII he was not Catholic.[25]  It was as a Catholic that Henry, in 1537—which is to say during the Dissolution—made the pregnant Queen Jane Seymour “one of the chief recipients for the prayers” of the nuns at Stixwould, newly founded by Henry.[26]   Henry also re-founded an abbey at Bisham so prayers could be said for Jane’s soul after she died from post-natal illness.[27]  Stixwould and Bisham were eventually dissolved.  But this royal back-and-forth on whether vowed religious life was favored by Henry would have made it unwise for zealously-reformist courtiers to gloat openly over the destruction of the very institutions that had evangelized Catholic England. 

Finally, even where Cranmer’s views are clear, he did not always succeed in inscribing them either into the Prayer Book or into Anglicanism’s identity.  For example, Richard Hooker (ca. 1554-1600) managed to, as it were, outmaneuver Cranmer’s predestinarian views so that majority opinion in the Church of England from the seventeenth century on tended towards a “distaste for Calvin.”[28]

In spite of all of this, Cranmer was indeed the archbishop of Canterbury.  He did have some influence on the king and on the state of religion in England.  I therefore present a few facts that give some indication of Cranmer’s views about monastic spirituality.  These facts indicate that, at the very least, Cranmer was not as vigorously opposed to certain key elements of monasticism as the Dissolution suggests.

In addition to knowing the Fathers and respecting them enough to invoke them as authorities, Cranmer knew the Rule of St. Benedict.  His sister, Alice, was a Cistercian nun at Stixwould.[29]  Stixwould was suppressed in 1536,[30] but Cranmer installed Alice at the Benedictine priory in Sheppey and tried, unsuccessfully, to obtain the royal grant for the priory.[31]  This might have been more for the sake of supporting his sister than supporting his sister’s religious vocation.  But it does not indicate a desire to erase every trace of monasticism from England.  (Alice seems to have remained a devout Catholic and possibly pleaded with Mary I and Cardinal Pole on her brother’s behalf.[32])

Cranmer displayed a knowledge of the RB when he issued injunctions to the Benedictines of Worcester Cathedral Priory.  He required the monks to attend daily Scripture reading in accord with “the rule of [their] Religion” (that is, the RB).[33]  Though this does not prove Cranmer admired the RB as a whole, he certainly respected the great importance the RB places on reading Scripture and, as was often the case, appealed to an authority of the past in support of his reforms.

Among the complexities and nuances[34] of the Dissolution is the fact that well before Henry’s project, there were critics of vowed religious who were nonetheless supporters of religious life as an ideal.[35]  Stephen Gardiner, for example, who survived the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI to become lord chancellor under Queen Mary, “never liked friars in his life … ; and for monks, they were but belly-gods.”[36]   Saint Thomas More admired the ideals of the religious life and held the Carthusians of London in high regard,[37] but he wrote candidly of “the gross corruption in the monastic and religious life of Europe in general.”[38]  Cardinal Wolsey had suppressed religious houses deemed decayed for want of vocations and had done so with papal approval.[39]  It was not a foregone conclusion that religious in the sixteenth century would not eventually reclaim and nobly live the ideals of their founders.  In this context, it is not easy to conclude that the Dissolution expressed an unqualified rejection of vowed religious life or of monasticism in particular.

Alexandria, Antioch, the Egyptian Desert, and Canterbury.

Being “deeply beholden to the Fathers as authorities” [40] is one of the important distinctions between the Anglican reformers and their continental counterparts.[41]  To offer a few examples, the preface to the first version of the Book of Common Prayer (1549)[42] invokes the authority of the “auncient fathers,” especially in relation to liturgy.  John Jewel (1522-1571) claimed that the Church of England had returned to the primitive church not only of the apostles but also the ancient fathers.[43]  Richard Hooker’s (1553-1600) writings employed 852 patristic references.[44]  Convocation in 1571 issued a canon that “obliged pastors to refer not only to the Scriptures but to the ancient Fathers of the Church, a statement probably without parallel in the official literature of the early generations of Continental Protestantism.”[45] 

As reliance on the Fathers in the preface to the 1549 Prayer Book indicates, the English reformers regarded the Fathers to be authorities not only in theology in our modern, compartmentalized sense, but also in liturgy, spirituality, and so on.  Though Cranmer[46] and his fellow reformers tended to quote from or refer to the Church Fathers for apologetic purposes in theological controversies of the day, Cranmer’s copy of the Liturgy of John Chrysostom was heavily marked with notes in Cranmer’s own hand, which is of interest given his liturgical output.[47]  Invoking the Fathers as authorities meant invoking “whole patterns of thought and practice from patristic writers and models.”[48]

In a summary that recapitulates points made above about the basic pattern of patristic/monastic thought, Philip Sheldrake writes:

Until the rise of scholasticism, ‘life in the spirit’ continued to be viewed as something which was applicable to all the baptised, even though there was already a de facto division between ‘states of life’ in the Church.  Theology was also conceived as a unity to which later divisions (into, for example, doctrine, ethics and spirituality) were entirely foreign.  The unifying feature was the Bible, and theology was generally what we nowadays think of as biblical theology—that is to say, an exegetically-based interpretation of Scripture aimed at producing both a fuller understanding of Christian faith and a deepening of the Christian life in all its dimensions.[49]

This biblical theology is part and parcel with liturgy in the patristic/monastic understanding.    Moreover, the Christian’s perception of God as revealed in Christ and “as expressed in the Bible and the liturgy as well as in personal Christian living” is what constitutes patristic/monastic “mystical theology. … In this sense, all believers are mystics.”[50]  Until the rise of scholasticism and then the Counter-Reformation, there were no exhaustive, monumental systems, expectations of dark nights of the soul, or methodical approaches to prayer.  It was a matter of simply getting on with lectio divina, prayer, and work.

It is this unity of scriptural-liturgical life lived in the day-to-day that is the ideal of the Prayer Book.  In many ways, the English reformers wanted to be as rooted in Antioch, Alexandria,[51] and the Egyptian desert as they were in Croydon[52] and Lambeth (though the politics of the Dissolution would have obscured the Egyptian-desert element in the reformers’ minds).  Without using the term lectio divina, the first Prayer Book’s preface expected this form of prayer of the clergy.  Ministers were to be “stirred up to godlines themselfes by often readyng and meditacion of Gods worde” and to communicate this to “the people by [their] daily hearyng of holy Scripture read in the Churche [that the people] should continuallye profite more and more in the knowledge of God, and bee the more inflamed with the love of his true religion”[53]  This is “analogous to the spirit behind the development of the patterns and rules of prayer of the fourth-century religious communities in the Egyptian desert.”[54]

Important though the Fathers are in the Anglican patrimony, full disclosure calls for at least a brief summary of some of the complexity of how patristic theology has been received in Anglicanism over time.  Low Church and Broad Church Anglicans[55] have generally been less enthusiastic about patristic theology.  This was especially so in the eighteenth century when loss of interest in the Fathers tended to characterize Anglicanism in general, which was due in part to the appeal to the Fathers by the High Church Non-Jurors.[56]  The nineteenth-century conversions to Catholicism by some of those in the High Church wing also caused an element of wariness about the Fathers.  Conversely, the Church Fathers were all the more important in the theology of the seventeenth-century Caroline Divines (about whom more is discussed presently) as they responded to the ever-increasing strength of the Puritans in England at that time.  The period following the Commonwealth was when the Church of England, relying on the patristics-influenced theology of the Caroline Divines, first acquired a strong sense of its own identity.[57]

Bibliography

Alston, George Cyprian. “Rule of St. Benedict.” In The Catholic Encyclopediahttp://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02436a.htm—accessed 20 January 2019.

Avis, Paul.  “What is ‘Anglicanism’?”  In The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight, eds., rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.

Barrie Dobson, R.  “The Black Monks of Durham and Canterbury Colleges: Comparisons and Contrasts.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 61-78.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997.

Allaria, Anthony.  “Canons and Canonesses Regular.”  In The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03288a.htm—accessed 4 April 2017.

Baumstark, Anton.  Comparative Liturgy.  London: Mowbray, 1958.

Benedict of Nursia.  The Rule of St. Benedict, edited by Timothy Fry.  Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1989.

Benedict XVI.  Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus: Providing for Personal Ordinariates for Anglicans Entering into Full Communion with the Catholic Churchhttp://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_ben-xvi_apc_20091104_anglicanorum-coetibus.html —accessed 12 December 2018.

—.  “Monastic Theology and Scholastic Theology.”  28 October 2009 General Audience celebrated in St. Peter’s Square, https://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=9179—accessed 5 January 2019.

Bradshaw, Paul F.  “Daily Prayer.”  In The Identity of Anglican Worship, edited by Kenneth Stevenson and Bryan Spinks, 69-79.  Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse Publishing, 1991.

—.  Two Ways of Praying.  Nashville: Abingdon, 1995.

Brahmhall, John.  Works.  Oxford: Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, 1842.

Chadwick, Henry.  “Tradition, Fathers and Councils.”  In The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight, eds., rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.

Church of England.  The Booke of the Common Prayer and Admininistracion of the Sacramentes, and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Churche after the Use of the Churche of England, 1549.  http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1549/BCP_1549.htm—accessed 12 November 2018.

—.  The Book of Common-Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites & Ceremonies, 1662.  London: Oxford University Press.

Clifton-Taylor, Alec.  The Cathedrals of England, rev. ed.  New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, 1989.

Danielou, Jean.  The Liturgy and the Word of God.  Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1959.

Duffy, Eamon.  The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400-1580.  New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2005.

Eliot, T. S.  The Four Quartets.  In T.S. Eliot: The Complete Poems and Plays 1909-1950.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1971.

Gatens, William J.  Victorian Cathedral Music in Theory and Practice.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Gifford, Terry.  “Towards a Post-Pastoral View of British Poetry.” In The Environmental Tradition in English Literature, edited by John Parham, 51-63. Aldershot, Hampshire, England; Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2002.

Greatrex, Joan.  “From Cathedral Cloister to Gloucester College.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 48-60.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997.

Guiver, George.  Company of Voices: Daily Prayer and the People of God.  New York: Pueblo, 1988.

Haigh, Christopher, editor.  The English Reformation Revised.  Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Haugaard, William.  “From the Reformation to the Eighteenth Century.”  In The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight, eds., rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.

Heimbucher, M. “Hermits of St. Augustine.” In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07281a.htm—accessed 12 January 2019.

Hylson-Smith, Kenneth.  Christianity in England from Roman Times to the Reformation, Volume I: From Roman Times to 1066.  London: SCM Press, 1999. 

—.  Christianity in England from Roman Times to the Reformation, Volume III: From 1384 to 1558.  London: SCM Press, 2001. 

Jacobs, Alan.  The Book of Common Prayer: A Biography.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Jeannes, Gordon.  “Cranmer and Common Prayer.”  In The Oxford Guide to the Book of Common Prayer: A Worldwide Survey, edited by Charles Hefling and Cynthia Shattuck, 21-38.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Jones, Norman.  The English Reformation: Religion and Cultural Adaptation.  Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.

Lane, Calvin.  “Wrestling with Our Past: Cranmer, Familiar Yet Strange.”   http://livingchurch.org/covenant/2017/03/27/wrestling-with-our-past-cranmer-familiar-yet-strange/—accessed 28 March 2017.

Leclercq, Jean.  The Love of Learning and the Desire for God.  New York: Fordham, 1993.

—.  “Spiritual Direction in the Benedictine Tradition.”  In Traditions of Spiritual Guidance, edited by Lavinia Byrne, 16-29.  Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1990.

Léotaud, Alban.  “The Benedictines at Oxford, 1283-1539.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 20-36.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997

Liddon, Henry Parry.  Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey, vol. 4.  London: Longmans, 1894.

Louf, André. The Cistercian Way. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Cistercian Publications, 1983.

MacCulloch, Diarmaid.  “The Church of England 1533-1603.”  In Anglicanism and the Western Christian Tradition: Continuity, Change and the Search for Communion, edited by Stephen Platten, 18-41.  Norwich: Canterbury Press, 2003.

—.    Letter from Professor Diarmaid MacCulloch to Br. John-Bede Pauley, O.S.B. 15 January 2019.

—.  Thomas Cranmer: A Life.  New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1996.

Maltby, Judith.  “Suffering and Surviving: The Civil Wars, the Commonwealth and the Formation of ‘Anglicanism’.”  In Anglicanism and the Western Christian Tradition: Continuity, Change and the Search for Communion, edited by Stephen Platten, 122-143.  Norwich: Canterbury Press, 2003

McBride, Oswald.  “The Tenth-Century Monastic Revival.”  In Monks of England: The Benedictines from Augustine to the Present Day, edited by Daniel Rees, Henry Wansbrough, and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 65-83.  London: SPCK, 1997.

McGowan, Andrew.  “Anglicanism and the Fathers.”  In The Oxford Handbook of Anglican Studies, edited by Mark Chapman, et al., 107-24.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Marius, Richard.  Thomas More: A Biography.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.

Mayr-Harting, Henry.  “The Role of Benedictine Abbeys in the Development of Oxford as a Centre of Legal Learning.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 11-19.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997.

Moorman, J. R. H.  The Anglican Spiritual Tradition.  Springfield, Illinois: Templegate, 1983.

Morgan, Kenneth O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Mudge, Thomas.  “Monastic Spirituality in Anglicanism.”  Review for Religious 37 (1978), no. 4, 505 et seq.

National Archives of the United Kingdom.

Neill, Stephen.  Anglicanism.  Penguin, 1965.

Newman, John Henry.  “The Benedictine Schools.”  In Essays and Sketches, vol. III.  New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1948.

Nichols, Aidan.  Catholics of the Anglican Patrimony.  Leominster: Gracewing, 2013.

—.  Looking at the Liturgy: A Critical View of its Contemporary Form.  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1996.

O’Donnell, Gabriel.  “Monastic Life and the Search for God.”  In Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church, edited by Robin Maas and Gabriel O’Donnell, 55-72.  Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.

Ong, Walter.  Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.  London: Methuen, 1982.

Page, William, editor.  “Houses of Cistercian nuns: The priory of Stixwould.”  In A History of the County of Lincoln: Volume 2, 146-49.  London: Victoria County History, 1906.  British History Online,

, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lincs/vol2/pp146-149—accessed 19 January 2019.

Pauley, John-Bede.  “The Anglican Choral Heritage and Lectio Divina.”  Antiphon 19, no. 2 (2015): 173-215.

—.  “The Implication of Monastic Qualities on the Pastoral Provision of the ‘Anglican Use’.”  Antiphon 10, no. 3 (2007): 261-76.

—.  “The Monastic Quality of Anglicanism.”  Anglican Embers 1, no. 5 (2005), 109 et seq.  Revised, 1, no. 9 (2006), 249 et seq.

—.  “The Monastic Quality of Anglicanism: Implications for Understanding the Anglican Patrimony.”  In Anglicans and the Roman Catholic Church: Reflections on Recent Developments, edited by Stephen Cavanaugh, 161-83.  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2011.

Perry, Ruth.  The Celebrated Mary Astell: An Early English Feminist.  Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Ramsey, Boniface.  “The Spirituality of the Early Church: Patristic Sources.”  In Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church, edited byRobin Maas and Gabriel O’Donnell, 25-44.  Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.

Ramsey, Michael.  The Anglican Spirit.  New York: Church Publishing Incorporated, 2004.

Reynolds, Anna Maria.  “‘Courtesy’ and ‘Homeliness’ in the Revelations of Julian of Norwich,” Fourteenth-Century English Mystics Newsletter, 2 (1979): 12-20, also available at http://www.umilta.net/homeliness.html—accessed 20 May 2015.f

Rowell, Geoffrey.  “Spirituality in the Anglican Tradition.”  In An Introduction to Christian Spirituality, ed. Ralph Waller and Benedicta Ward.  London: SPCK, 1999.

Scarisbrick, Jack.  The Reformation and the English People.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Second Vatican Council.  “Perfectae Caritatis: Decree on the Up-To-Date Renewal of Religious Life.”  In Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, study edition, edited by Austin Flannery, 611-23.  Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1992.

Second Vatican Council, “Unitatis Redintegratio: Decree on Ecumenism,” in Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, study edition, edited by Austin Flannery, 452-470.  Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1992.

Selwyn, David.  “Cranmer’s Library: Its Potential for Reformation Studies.”  In Thomas Cranmer: Churchman and Scholar, edited by Paul Ayris and David Selwyn, 39-72.  Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1993.

Sheldrake, Philip.  A Brief History of Spirituality.  Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.

—.  Spirituality and History: Questions of Interpretation and Method.  New York: Orbis, 1995.

Stetson, William H.  “The Pastoral Provision.”  Anglican Embers 1, no. 10 (Whitsuntide 2006): 262-66. 

Sydnor, William. The Story of the Real Prayer Book, 1549-1979.  Wilton, Connecticut: Morehouse Publishing, 1989.

Sykes, Stephen and John Booty.  The Study of Anglicanism.  SPCK, 1988.

Taft, Robert.  The Liturgy of the Hours in East and West: The Origins of the Divine Office and Its Meaning for Today.  Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1993.

Thorndike, Herbert.  Works.  Oxford: Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, 1842.

Thornton, Martin.  English Spirituality.  Cambridge, Massachusetts:Cowley, 1986.

—.  “The Caroline Divines and the Cambridge Platonists.”  In The Study of Spirituality, edited by Cheslyn Jones, et al., 431-37.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

United Kingdom.  Acte Wherby All Relygeous Houses of Monkes Chanons and Nonnes …are Geven to the Kinges Highnes his Heires and Successours for Ever.  27 Hen 8 c 28. 1536.  http://tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/act_dissolution1.htm —accessed 11 January 2019.

—.  Acte for Dissolucion of the Abbeys.  31 Hen 8 c 13.  1539.  http://tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/act_dissolution2.htm—accessed 11 January 2019.

—.  Records of the Exchequer, E 21.  London: National Archives, 1524-?1528.  http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/browse/r/r/C6520?uri=C6520–accessed 10 January 2019.

—.  Records of the Exchequer, E 24.  London: National Archives, 1524-17th Century.  http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C6523–accessed 10 January 2019.

Vermeersch, Arthur.  “Nuns.”  In The Catholic Encyclopediahttp://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11164a.htm—accessed 12 January 2019.

—.  “Religious Life.”  In The Catholic Encyclopediahttp://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12748b.htm—accessed 2 April 2017.

Wall, John N.  “Anglican Spirituality: A Historical Introduction.”  In Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church, edited by Robin Maas and Gabriel O’Donnell, 269-86.  Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.


[1] Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars; Christopher Haigh, ed., The English Reformation Revised (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Jack Scarisbrick, The Reformation and the English People (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).

[2] Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars, xxiv.

[3] Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars, xxxiv.

[4] Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars, xv.

[5] The Dissolution of religious houses was approved by parliament in two acts.  The 1536 Acte Wherby All Relygeous Houses of Monkes Chanons and Nonnes …are Geven to the Kinges Highnes his Heires and Successours for Ever, 27 Hen 8 c 28, approved the dissolution of smaller religious houses.  http://tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/act_dissolution1.htm—accessed 11 January 2019.  The 1539 Acte for Dissolucion of the Abbeys, 31 Hen 8 c 13, approved the dissolution of the larger houses.  http://tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/act_dissolution2.htm—accessed 11 January 2019.  The process of dissolution was completed by 1540.  http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/research-guides/dissolution-monasteries-1536-1540/—accessed 11 January 2019.

[6] Kenneth O. Morgan, The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 224, 230.

[7] Hylson-Smith, Christianity in England … 1384 to 1558, 143.

[8] McBride, “The Tenth-Century Monastic Revival,” 80.

[9] Morgan, 230.

[10] After the Great War, for example, there was a widespread phenomenon in Britain “to retreat to a static rural idyll away from the disordered stresses of modernity.”  Terry Gifford, “Towards a Post-Pastoral View of British Poetry,” in The Environmental Tradition in English Literature, ed. John Parham, 51-63 (Aldershot, Hampshire, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002), 52.

[11] Richard Marius, Thomas More: A Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), 4.

[12] Hylson-Smith, Christianity in England … 1384 to 1558, 150, citing J. K. McConica, English Humanists and Reformation Politics Under Henry VIII and Edward VI (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965), 46-51.

[13] Hylson-Smith, Christianity in England … 1384 to 1558, 151.

[14] Andrew McGowan, “Anglicanism and the Fathers,” in The Oxford Handbook of Anglican Studies, ed. Mark Chapman, et al. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 107-124.

[15] Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1996), 29.

[16] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 502, chapter 12.

[17] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 128.

[18] In addition to the English reformers’ respect for the theological past of the patristic era, which tended to make the English Reform less extreme than reform movements on the continent, England’s juridical past played a role in decelerating and hindering aspects of the reform.  Norman Jones, The English Reformation: Religion and Cultural Adaptation (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2002), 70 et seq.

[19] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 265, 284.

[20] The first Book of Common Prayer was issued in 1549 (under Edward VI).  It was largely the work of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1533 to 1556.  Cranmer essentially translated selected passages from the Breviary and the Missal with additions from other sources.  For a discussion of the Prayer Book version in its most Protestant guise—the 1552 Prayer Book—before it settled into its “most globally influential” version, the 1662 Prayer Book, see Calvin Lane’s http://livingchurch.org/covenant/2017/03/27/wrestling-with-our-past-cranmer-familiar-yet-strange/—accessed 28 March 2017.  See also, William Sydnor, The Story of the Real Prayer Book, 1549-1979 (Wilton, Connecticut: Morehouse Publishing, 1989).

[21] Gordon Jeanes, “Cranmer and Common Prayer,” in The Oxford Guide to The Book of Common Prayer: A Worldwide Survey, ed. Charles Hefling and Cynthia Shattuck (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 21.

[22] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 3.

[23] MacCulloch, Letter from Professor Diarmaid MacCulloch to Br. John-Bede Pauley, O.S.B. 15 January 2019.

[24] “Cromwell was much more personally involved with [the dissolution of the] monasteries than Cranmer, … and his intentions towards them were shaped by his beloved master Wolsey’s programme of suppressions to fund colleges.”  MacCulloch, Letter.

[25]  Norman Jones, The English Reformation, 76.  “Henry died a Catholic, though a rather bad one.” C. Haigh, English Reformations: Religion, Politics, and Society Under the Tudors (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 167, quoted in Hylson-Smith, Christianity in England … 1384 to 1558, 232.  After Henry’s death, official statements that approved dissolution of the chantries did so for openly theological reasons, though the government’s need for revenue was still a major factor.  The “superstitions” justifying dissolution of the chantries was praying for souls of founders, which is a much narrower scope than the theologies and practices of religious communities.

[26]  MacCulloch, Cranmer, 207.

[27]  MacCulloch, Cranmer, 207, n. 120.

[28] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 211.

[29] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 13.

[30]  William Page, ed., “Houses of Cistercian nuns: The priory of Stixwould,” in A History of the County of Lincoln: Volume 2, 146-49 (London: Victoria County History, 1906), British History Online,

, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lincs/vol2/pp146-149—accessed 19 January 2019.

[31] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 200.

[32]  The action of Cranmer’s Catholic sister—assuming it was Alice and that she was still alive—is recorded in Bishop Cranmer’s Recantacyons, which, in spite of a “virulently Catholic” bias, seems accurate.  MacCulloch, Cranmer, 585.

[33] MacCulloch, Cranmer, 128

[34] MacCulloch, Letter.

[35] Hylson-Smith, Christianity in England … 1384 to 1558, 167.

[36] J. Foxe, Acts and Monuments of These Latter and Perilous Days … (London: J. Day, 1563), quoted in MacCulloch, Cranmer, 33.

[37] Marius, 34.

[38] Marius, 259.

[39] Records of the Exchequer, E 21 (London: National Archives, 1524-?1528), http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/browse/r/r/C6520?uri=C6520–accessed 10 January 2019.

Dissolution of religious houses to fund the colleges founded by Cardinal Wolsey in Ipswich and Oxford.  Records of the Exchequer, E 24 (London: National Archives, 1524-17th Century), http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C6523–accessed 10 January 2019.  82 deeds from the Exchequer Treasury of Receipt relating to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey’s foundations of colleges at Oxford in June 1525, and in his home town of Ipswich in July 1528.

[40] McGowan, “Anglicanism and the Fathers,” 107-124.

              [41] William Haugaard, “From the Reformation to the Eighteenth Century,” in The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight, eds., rev. ed. (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998), 24; Henry Chadwick, “Tradition, Fathers and Councils,” in The Study of Anglicanism, 105.  Bishop J. R. H. Moorman distinguishes the Prayer Book from Protestantism in the fact that “it is based on the writings of the Fathers and the traditions of the Church.”  The Anglican Spiritual Tradition (Springfield, Illinois: Templegate, 1983), 212.  On the Caroline Divines’ synthesis of patristic sources with fourteenth-century English and other spiritualities, see Martin Thornton, English Spirituality, 231–243.

[42] Church of England, Preface to The Booke of the Common Prayer and Admininistracion of the Sacramentes, and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Churche after the Use of the Churche of England, http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1549/front_matter_1549.htm#Preface—accessed 12 November 2018.

[43] McGowan, 107.

[44] McGowan, 114, citing A. S. McGrade, “Classical, Patristic, and Medieval Sources,” in T. Kirby, ed., A Companion to Richard Hooker (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008), 52.

              [45] Aidan Nichols, Catholics of the Anglican Patrimony (Leominster: Gracewing, 2013), 39.

[46] McGowan, 111.

[47] David Selwyn, D. G. (1993) “Cranmer’s Library: Its Potential for Reformation Studies,” in Paul Ayris and David Selwyn, ed., Thomas Cranmer: Churchman and Scholar (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1993), 72.

[48] McGowan, 121.

[49] Philip Sheldrake, Spirituality and History: Questions of Interpretation and Method (New York: Orbis, 1995), 45-46.

[50] Sheldrake, Spirituality and History, 46.

[51] Alexandria and Antioch are associated with two principal exegetical schools in the patristic era.

[52] Cranmer’s principal library was at Croydon, south of London, perhaps in an intentionally “rheumatic” location so as to discourage visits by King Henry.  Alan Jacobs, The Book of Common Prayer: A Biography (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), 1.

[53] Church of England, Preface to The Booke of the Common Prayer and Admininistracion of the Sacramentes, and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Churche after the Use of the Churche of England, http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1549/front_matter_1549.htm#Preface—accessed 12 November 2018.

[54]  Paul F. Bradshaw, “Daily Prayer,” in The Identity of Anglican Worship, ed., Kenneth Stevenson and Bryan Spinks (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse Publishing, 1991), 73.

[55] Simply put, the Low Church wing inclines towards Protestantism, the High Church towards Anglicanism’s Catholic roots. Contrasting characteristics: Low Church emphasis on sermons, High Church emphasis on sacraments and liturgy; Low Church giving pride of place to proclamation, the High Church also valuing proclamation but recollected silence as well; the Low Church tendency away from praying to saints and away from praying for the dead, the High Church tendency towards those practices; and the Low Church preference for hymn texts that express the believer’s subjective experience, the High Church preference for more objective hymn texts.  Since both High Church and Low Church Anglicanism strongly affirmed the fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith and were primarily concerned with the spiritual welfare and destiny of the individual Christian soul, they clashed not so much with each other as with the Broad Church party (or the Liberal wing or Latitudinarian party), which gave priority to human reason over revelation and had the “unfailing capacity to adapt the concepts of religion [to] the prevailing secular Zeitgeist.”  Liturgy is “largely extraneous to the principal Broad Church concerns.”  William J. Gatens, Victorian Cathedral Music in Theory and Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 3

              [56] The Non-Jurors were Anglican Churchmen who, objecting to the Protestant Succession Act of 1689, would not swear allegiance to William and Mary.  The Non-Jurors were on the High Church side of the Anglican spectrum.  The eighteenth-century loss of interest in the Fathers was also because of “the exigencies of the Deistic controversy, in which [the Fathers] could not be appealed to as in any sense authorities which both sides would recognize; and partly to the shallowness which was characteristic of the time, and which only too readily persuaded itself that a large and exacting study was, after all, needless and unfruitful.”  Henry Parry Liddon, Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey, vol. 4 (London: Longmans, 1894), 413

              [57] “As a Church[, the Church of England in the Restoration period] was very self-conscious of its purification from popery and its repudiation of Calvinism, and it stood as the Church of the land, of the English people …”  Moorman, The Anglican Spiritual Tradition, 126.

Bibliography

Alston, George Cyprian. “Rule of St. Benedict.” In The Catholic Encyclopediahttp://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02436a.htm—accessed 20 January 2019.

Anonymous.  “Herbert Thorndyke, Writer and Priest.”  Westminster Abbey website. 

https://www.westminster-abbey.org/abbey-commemorations/commemorations/herbert-thorndyke—accessed 7 July 2019.

Avis, Paul.  “What is ‘Anglicanism’?”  In The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight, eds., rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.

Barrie Dobson, R.  “The Black Monks of Durham and Canterbury Colleges: Comparisons and Contrasts.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 61-78.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997.

Allaria, Anthony.  “Canons and Canonesses Regular.”  In The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03288a.htm—accessed 4 April 2017.

Baumstark, Anton.  Comparative Liturgy.  London: Mowbray, 1958.

Benedict of Nursia.  The Rule of St. Benedict, edited by Timothy Fry.  Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1989.

Benedict XVI.  Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus: Providing for Personal Ordinariates for Anglicans Entering into Full Communion with the Catholic Churchhttp://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_ben-xvi_apc_20091104_anglicanorum-coetibus.html —accessed 12 December 2018.

—.  “Monastic Theology and Scholastic Theology.”  28 October 2009 General Audience celebrated in St. Peter’s Square, https://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=9179—accessed 5 January 2019.

Bradshaw, Paul F.  “Daily Prayer.”  In The Identity of Anglican Worship, edited by Kenneth Stevenson and Bryan Spinks, 69-79.  Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse Publishing, 1991.

—.  Two Ways of Praying.  Nashville: Abingdon, 1995.

Brahmhall, John.  Works.  Oxford: Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, 1842.

Chadwick, Henry.  “Tradition, Fathers and Councils.”  In The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight, eds., rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.

Charles, Amy M.  “Rosemary Margaret van Wengen-Shute, George Herbert and the Liturgy of the Church of England.”  George Herbert Journal 6, no.1 (Fall 1982): 37-41.

Church of England.  The Booke of the Common Prayer and Admininistracion of the Sacramentes, and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Churche after the Use of the Churche of England, 1549.  http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1549/BCP_1549.htm—accessed 12 November 2018.

—.  The Book of Common-Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites & Ceremonies, 1662.  London: Oxford University Press.

Clifton-Taylor, Alec.  The Cathedrals of England, rev. ed.  New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, 1989.

Cosin, John.  Religion, Discipline, and Rites Of The Church Of England, chapter V.  Available at https://patristicanglican.blogspot.com/2010/11/role-of-church-fathers-in-anglicanism.html—accessed 25 June 2019.

Danielou, Jean.  The Liturgy and the Word of God.  Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1959.

Duffy, Eamon.  The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400-1580.  New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2005.

Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.  “John Cosin, English Bishop and Theologian.”  Encyclopaedia Britannica.  11 January 2019.  https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Cosin – accessed 9 July 2019.

Eliot, T. S.  The Four Quartets.  In T.S. Eliot: The Complete Poems and Plays 1909-1950.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1971.

Gatens, William J.  Victorian Cathedral Music in Theory and Practice.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Gifford, Terry.  “Towards a Post-Pastoral View of British Poetry.” In The Environmental Tradition in English Literature, edited by John Parham, 51-63. Aldershot, Hampshire, England; Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2002.

Greatrex, Joan.  “From Cathedral Cloister to Gloucester College.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 48-60.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997.

Guiver, George.  Company of Voices: Daily Prayer and the People of God.  New York: Pueblo, 1988.

Haigh, Christopher, editor.  The English Reformation Revised.  Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Haugaard, William.  “From the Reformation to the Eighteenth Century.”  In The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight, eds., rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.

Heimbucher, M. “Hermits of St. Augustine.” In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07281a.htm—accessed 12 January 2019.

Hylson-Smith, Kenneth.  Christianity in England from Roman Times to the Reformation, Volume I: From Roman Times to 1066.  London: SCM Press, 1999. 

—.  Christianity in England from Roman Times to the Reformation, Volume III: From 1384 to 1558.  London: SCM Press, 2001. 

Jacobs, Alan.  The Book of Common Prayer: A Biography.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Jeannes, Gordon.  “Cranmer and Common Prayer.”  In The Oxford Guide to the Book of Common Prayer: A Worldwide Survey, edited by Charles Hefling and Cynthia Shattuck, 21-38.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Jones, Norman.  The English Reformation: Religion and Cultural Adaptation.  Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.

Lane, Calvin.  “Wrestling with Our Past: Cranmer, Familiar Yet Strange.”   http://livingchurch.org/covenant/2017/03/27/wrestling-with-our-past-cranmer-familiar-yet-strange/—accessed 28 March 2017.

Leclercq, Jean.  The Love of Learning and the Desire for God.  New York: Fordham, 1993.

—.  “Spiritual Direction in the Benedictine Tradition.”  In Traditions of Spiritual Guidance, edited by Lavinia Byrne, 16-29.  Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1990.

Léotaud, Alban.  “The Benedictines at Oxford, 1283-1539.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 20-36.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997

Liddon, Henry Parry.  Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey, vol. 4.  London: Longmans, 1894.

Louf, André. The Cistercian Way. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Cistercian Publications, 1983.

MacCulloch, Diarmaid.  “The Church of England 1533-1603.”  In Anglicanism and the Western Christian Tradition: Continuity, Change and the Search for Communion, edited by Stephen Platten, 18-41.  Norwich: Canterbury Press, 2003.

—.    Letter from Professor Diarmaid MacCulloch to Br. John-Bede Pauley, O.S.B. 15 January 2019.

—.  Thomas Cranmer: A Life.  New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1996.

Maltby, Judith.  “Suffering and Surviving: The Civil Wars, the Commonwealth and the Formation of ‘Anglicanism’.”  In Anglicanism and the Western Christian Tradition: Continuity, Change and the Search for Communion, edited by Stephen Platten, 122-143.  Norwich: Canterbury Press, 2003

McBride, Oswald.  “The Tenth-Century Monastic Revival.”  In Monks of England: The Benedictines from Augustine to the Present Day, edited by Daniel Rees, Henry Wansbrough, and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 65-83.  London: SPCK, 1997.

McGowan, Andrew.  “Anglicanism and the Fathers.”  In The Oxford Handbook of Anglican Studies, edited by Mark Chapman, et al., 107-24.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Marius, Richard.  Thomas More: A Biography.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.

Mayr-Harting, Henry.  “The Role of Benedictine Abbeys in the Development of Oxford as a Centre of Legal Learning.”  In Benedictines in Oxford, edited by Henry Wansbrough and Anthony Marett-Crosby, 11-19.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1997.

Moorman, J. R. H.  The Anglican Spiritual Tradition.  Springfield, Illinois: Templegate, 1983.

Morgan, Kenneth O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Mudge, Thomas.  “Monastic Spirituality in Anglicanism.”  Review for Religious 37 (1978), no. 4, 505 et seq.

National Archives of the United Kingdom.

Neill, Stephen.  Anglicanism.  Penguin, 1965.

Newman, John Henry.  “The Benedictine Schools.”  In Essays and Sketches, vol. III.  New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1948.

Nichols, Aidan.  Catholics of the Anglican Patrimony.  Leominster: Gracewing, 2013.

—.  Looking at the Liturgy: A Critical View of its Contemporary Form.  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1996.

O’Donnell, Gabriel.  “Monastic Life and the Search for God.”  In Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church, edited by Robin Maas and Gabriel O’Donnell, 55-72.  Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.

Ong, Walter.  Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.  London: Methuen, 1982.

Ottley, Robert L.  Lancelot Andrewes.  Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1894.

Page, William, editor.  “Houses of Cistercian nuns: The priory of Stixwould.”  In A History of the County of Lincoln: Volume 2, 146-49.  London: Victoria County History, 1906.  British History Online, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lincs/vol2/pp146-149—accessed 19 January 2019.

Pauley, John-Bede.  “The Anglican Choral Heritage and Lectio Divina.”  Antiphon 19, no. 2 (2015): 173-215.

—.  “The Implication of Monastic Qualities on the Pastoral Provision of the ‘Anglican Use’.”  Antiphon 10, no. 3 (2007): 261-76.

—.  “The Monastic Quality of Anglicanism.”  Anglican Embers 1, no. 5 (2005), 109 et seq.  Revised, 1, no. 9 (2006), 249 et seq.

—.  “The Monastic Quality of Anglicanism: Implications for Understanding the Anglican Patrimony.”  In Anglicans and the Roman Catholic Church: Reflections on Recent Developments, edited by Stephen Cavanaugh, 161-83.  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2011.

Perry, Ruth.  The Celebrated Mary Astell: An Early English Feminist.  Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Ramsey, Boniface.  “The Spirituality of the Early Church: Patristic Sources.”  In Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church, edited byRobin Maas and Gabriel O’Donnell, 25-44.  Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.

Ramsey, Michael.  The Anglican Spirit.  New York: Church Publishing Incorporated, 2004.

Reidy, Maurice F.  Bishop Lancelot Andrewes, Jacobean Court Preacher: A Study in Early Seventeenth-Century Religious Thought.  Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1955.

Reynolds, Anna Maria.  “‘Courtesy’ and ‘Homeliness’ in the Revelations of Julian of Norwich,” Fourteenth-Century English Mystics Newsletter, 2 (1979): 12-20, also available at http://www.umilta.net/homeliness.html—accessed 20 May 2015.f

Rowell, Geoffrey.  “Spirituality in the Anglican Tradition.”  In An Introduction to Christian Spirituality, ed. Ralph Waller and Benedicta Ward.  London: SPCK, 1999.

Scarisbrick, Jack.  The Reformation and the English People.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Second Vatican Council.  “Perfectae Caritatis: Decree on the Up-To-Date Renewal of Religious Life.”  In Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, study edition, edited by Austin Flannery, 611-23.  Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1992.

Second Vatican Council, “Unitatis Redintegratio: Decree on Ecumenism,” in Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, study edition, edited by Austin Flannery, 452-470.  Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1992.

Selwyn, David.  “Cranmer’s Library: Its Potential for Reformation Studies.”  In Thomas Cranmer: Churchman and Scholar, edited by Paul Ayris and David Selwyn, 39-72.  Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1993.

Sheldrake, Philip.  A Brief History of Spirituality.  Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.

—.  Spirituality and History: Questions of Interpretation and Method.  New York: Orbis, 1995.

Stetson, William H.  “The Pastoral Provision.”  Anglican Embers 1, no. 10 (Whitsuntide 2006): 262-66. 

Sydnor, William. The Story of the Real Prayer Book, 1549-1979.  Wilton, Connecticut: Morehouse Publishing, 1989.

Sykes, Stephen and John Booty.  The Study of Anglicanism.  SPCK, 1988.

Taft, Robert.  The Liturgy of the Hours in East and West: The Origins of the Divine Office and Its Meaning for Today.  Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1993.

Targoff, Ramie.  Common Prayer: The Language of Public Devotion in Early Modern England.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Thorndike, Herbert.  Works.  Oxford: Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, 1842.

Thornton, Martin.  English Spirituality.  Cambridge, Massachusetts:Cowley, 1986.

—.  “The Caroline Divines and the Cambridge Platonists.”  In The Study of Spirituality, edited by Cheslyn Jones, et al., 431-37.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

United Kingdom.  Acte Wherby All Relygeous Houses of Monkes Chanons and Nonnes …are Geven to the Kinges Highnes his Heires and Successours for Ever.  27 Hen 8 c 28. 1536.  http://tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/act_dissolution1.htm —accessed 11 January 2019.

—.  Acte for Dissolucion of the Abbeys.  31 Hen 8 c 13.  1539.  http://tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/act_dissolution2.htm—accessed 11 January 2019.

—.  Records of the Exchequer, E 21.  London: National Archives, 1524-?1528.  http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/browse/r/r/C6520?uri=C6520–accessed 10 January 2019.

—.  Records of the Exchequer, E 24.  London: National Archives, 1524-17th Century.  http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C6523–accessed 10 January 2019.

Vermeersch, Arthur.  “Nuns.”  In The Catholic Encyclopediahttp://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11164a.htm—accessed 12 January 2019.

—.  “Religious Life.”  In The Catholic Encyclopediahttp://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12748b.htm—accessed 2 April 2017.

Wall, John N.  “Anglican Spirituality: A Historical Introduction.”  In Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church, edited by Robin Maas and Gabriel O’Donnell, 269-86.  Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.

Wengen-Shute, Rosemary.  “George Herbert and the Liturgy of the Church of England.”  Doctoral dissertation, University of Leiden, 1981.

3 Comments Add yours

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s